Non-Communicable Diseases

Non-Communicable Diseases
Non-communicable diseases are chronic, often fatal, conditions that cause significant suffering to individuals. These illnesses are defined as long-lasting and slow-progressing and are a leading cause of adult mortality worldwide. They are grouped together by the World Health Organization as “Group II Diseases”, and are categorized by ICD-10 code. Some examples of non-communicable diseases include digestive diseases, genitourinary diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, and congenital anomalies.

Health promotion
Health promotion for non-communicable diseases is an increasingly important part of global health efforts. The most effective non-communicable disease interventions involve promoting healthy lifestyles throughout the life cycle. This includes preconception, early neonatal life, childhood, and adolescence. These interventions contribute to improved health outcomes, and help advance the health SDGs.

In addition to infectious diseases, chronic non-communicable diseases are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. This global health issue requires effective and efficient health promotion programs and systems to address the causes of and control of chronic diseases. The Global Handbook on Health Promotion for Non-Communicable Diseases outlines key priorities and system requirements.

Investing in prevention and early detection of non-communicable diseases has significant health benefits. Investments in healthy lifestyle programs will improve the health outcomes for non-communicable diseases and reduce the demand for health care services.

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing across sub-Saharan Africa, and there is a need for a multi-sectoral approach to control the disease. In high-income countries, multi-sectoral approaches have been shown to improve population-level health outcomes. However, research on this approach in sub-Saharan Africa is limited.

This book provides a theoretical background and real-life case studies on non-communicable disease prevention. The book examines public health policies and programmes in low and middle-income countries. Each country is studied in detail, with focus on implementing WHO-recommended “best buys” for non-communicable disease prevention. The four stages of the policy cycle are examined in depth, from problem definition to solution generation.

Prevention of non-communicable diseases can be achieved by addressing the root causes of these diseases. Community care providers are the frontline in the fight against non-communicable diseases. They provide the essential link between the patient and care providers, and can be trained rapidly. Furthermore, primary care providers often fill gaps where more qualified healthcare professionals are lacking.

Noncommunicable diseases are rapidly growing and putting tremendous pressure on health systems. Ignoring this growing burden would only increase the burden and lead to increased costs. In addition, the diseases would not be managed according to their clinical effectiveness or cost-effectiveness, but rather by local commercial interests.

Noncommunicable diseases, which account for over two thirds of global deaths, are caused by an array of factors. Among these risk factors are tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity. Many of these diseases are preventable and have treatment options available. Treatment options are crucial for achieving the goal of improving health.

Global burden
The Global Burden of Disease is a compilation of data on disease rates and risk factors in 195 countries. The disease burden is the cause of death in many countries. About 60% of deaths worldwide are from communicable diseases, and more than 80 percent of these deaths occur in low-income countries. These illnesses include diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, respiratory diseases, and mental disorders.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become an increasing concern for the world’s population. They cause more than five million deaths per year, with most of these occurring in low and middle-income countries. Many of the diseases can be prevented, and the associated risk factors can be tackled. The focus of this article is the growing burden of these diseases in developing countries.

Impact on vulnerable populations
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are widespread and disproportionately affect vulnerable populations. They cause death and illness and are often undiagnosed or treated too late to prevent severe consequences. Despite this, there are effective interventions that can significantly reduce the burden of these diseases in resource-constrained settings. One such intervention is continuing medical education, which helps improve the quality of primary care.

The global burden of non-communicable diseases is a major public health challenge and is a key contributor to the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. NCDs disproportionately affect low-income and poor populations and people living with mental health problems. Prevention efforts are hampered by the lack of universal access to health services, affordable technologies, and health care workers.